Announcements of meetings that could be of interest to the readers of the Journal of Gerontology and Geriatrics should be sent to the Editorial Office at least 4 months before the date of publication. Short announcements are published free of charge. Large announcements are considered as advertising and the prices vary according to the size and the number of insertions.


Proofs will be made available to the author(s) to be checked. It is the responsibility of the author(s) to make sure that the quality and accuracy of the manuscript, figures, and tables in the proofs is correct. Authors should return their proofs within 48 hours, by fax or e-mail if the corrections are minor, to expedite publication. All questions arising after acceptance of a paper, especially those concerning proofs, should be directed to the Publisher, Pacini Editore Spa.

Further changes or additions to the edited manuscript after these corrections cannot be accepted.

Review Process

First submission. Once successful submission of a manuscript has taken place, an acknowledgement will be sent by e-mail to the Corresponding Author on the manuscript. All subsequent correspondence will be with the designated Corresponding Author. The number of the manuscript should be used by the Authors in all communications with the Editorial Office. All the manuscripts will be reviewed by the Editors and, and in some cases, by other expert reviewers. After review, the corresponding Author will be notified by letter of the decision taken by the Editor(s). This letter will be accompanied in most, but not all, cases by the comments of the reviewers. This letter will be sent via e-mail.
Resubmission of manuscripts. In some cases, Authors will be invited to submit a revised version of the manuscript for further review. This invitation does not imply, in any case, that the revised version will be accepted for publication. In general, revised manuscripts must be received in the Editorial Office within four months of the date of the first decision. Authors should submit the resubmitted manuscript with all changes underlined. The resubmitted manuscript should be accompanied by a cover letter stating that the manuscript has been revised according to the comments made by the Editor and the Reviewers. Figures and tables must be uploaded. Please ensure that a separate point by point response to the reviewers is included with the covering letter. Please do not send revised manuscripts to the Editorial Office via e-mail.

Types of Manuscripts

Editorials, commentaries and hypothesis papers will be considered for publication if they are related to articles published in recent issues of the Journal of Gerontology and Geriatrics. Occasionally, commentaries that refer to articles not published in the Journal of Gerontology and Geriatrics will be considered.– The length of a commentary should not exceed 800 words.– A maximum of 1 table or 1 figure is allowed.– References should not exceed a maximum of 10.

– No more than 4 Authors may appear in the author list.

Clinical Observations in Geriatrics

The section will include contributions in clinical experiences and case reports, commented by experts according to the newest guidelines.

– The maximum length is 3000 words, including the summary and references.

– A maximum of 2 tables and 2 figures is allowed.

– References should not exceed a maximum of 15.

– A title page must be provided.

 This section will be edited by Marco Zoli.


Geriatrics and Gerontology Elsewhere

This section consists of invited comments on articles as well as guidelines published in the most important clinical journals about aging.

–  The length of a comment should not exceed 1500 words, excluding references.

–  A maximum of 1 table or 1 figure is allowed.

–  References should not exceed a maximum of 20

–  A title page must be provided.


This section will be edited by Patrizio Odetti.

Organization of the manuscript

General formatting

The submitted manuscript must be typed single-spaced throughout and numbered (including references, tables and figure legends). Preferably using a “standard” font (we prefer Times/Arial 12). For mathematical symbols, Greek letters, and other special characters, use normal text. The references must be in accordance with the Journal of Gerontology and Geriatrics reference style (see References).
Approved nomenclature for gene and protein names and symbols should be used, including appropriate use of italics (all gene symbols and loci, should be in italics) and capitalization as it applies for each organism’s standard nomenclature format, in text, tables, and figures. Full gene names are generally not in italics and Greek symbols are not used. Proteins should not be italicized.
Improperly prepared manuscripts will not be entered into the peer review process and will be sent back to the author for correction.
A letter of submission must be uploaded with all manuscripts. This letter may be used to outline the strengths of the manuscript. All commercial relationships (i.e. consultancies, patent-licensing agreements) that might pose a conflict of interest in connection with the submitted manuscript must be included in the letter.


The JGG uses the reference style as outlined in the  ICMJE sample references, also referred to as the “Vancouver” style.

References must be listed at the end of the manuscript and numbered in the order that they appear in the text.

In the text, citations should be indicated by the reference number in brackets.

The number of references should not exceed 40.
No articles with a number of top references will be accepted

If an article is submitted to a journal and also publicly available as a pre-print, the pre-print may be cited.

Journal name abbreviations should be those found in the NCBI databases.


Reference formatting


Because all references will be linked electronically as much as possible to the papers they cite, proper formatting of the references is crucial. References should be formatted as follows:


Published papers

  1. Hou WR, Hou YL, Wu GF, et al. cDNA, genomic sequence cloning and overexpression of ribosomal protein gene L9 (rpL9) of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). Genet Mol Res 2011;10:1576-88.

Note: Use of a DOI number for the full-text article is acceptable as an alternative to or in addition to traditional volume and page numbers:

Devaraju P, Gulati R, Antony PT, et al. Susceptibility to SLE in South Indian Tamils may be influenced by genetic selection pressure on TLR2 and TLR9 genes. Mol Immunol 2014 Nov 22. pii: S0161-5890(14)00313-7. doi: 10.1016/j.molimm.2014.11.005


Accepted, unpublished papers

Same as above, but “In press” appears instead of the page numbers or DOI.


Websites or online articles

  1. Huynen MMTE, Martens P, Hilderlink HBM. The health impacts of globalisation: a conceptual framework. Global Health 2005;1:14. Available:



  1. Bates B. Bargaining for life: a social history of tuberculosis. 1st ed. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press 1992.


Book chapters

  1. Hansen B. New York City epidemics and history for the public. In: Harden VA, Risse GB, Eds. AIDS and the historian. Bethesda: National Institutes of Health 1991, pp. 21-8.


Deposited articles (preprints, e-prints, or arXiv)

  1. Krick T, Shub DA, Verstraete N, et al. Amino acid metabolism conflicts with protein diversity; 1991. Preprint. Available: arXiv:1403.3301v1 (Accessed 17 March 2014).


Published media (print or online newspapers and magazine articles)

  1. Fountain H. For already vulnerable penguins, study finds climate change is another danger. The New York Times. 29 Jan 2014. Available: (Accessed 17 March 2014).


New media (blogs, websites, or other written works)

  1. Allen L. Announcing PLOS Blogs. 2010 Sep 1 [cited 17 March 2014]. In: PLOS Blogs [Internet]. San Francisco: PLOS 2006 – . [about 2 screens]. Available:


Masters’ theses or doctoral dissertations

  1. Wells A. Exploring the development of the independent, electronic, scholarly journal. M.Sc. Thesis, The University of Sheffield 1999. Available:


Databases and repositories (Figshare, arXiv)

  1. Roberts SB. QPX Genome Browser Feature Tracks; 2013. Database: figshare [Internet]. Accessed:


Multimedia (videos, movies, or TV shows)

  1. Hitchcock A, producer and director. Rear Window [Film]; 1954. Los Angeles: MGM.

Figures and Tables

Figures. All graphics submitted to the JGG should be sent at their actual size, which is 100% of their print dimension and in portrait orientation.

Two standard widths are used and figures should fit in one (8.5 x 23.5 cm) or two (17.5 x 23.5 cm) columns.

Figures should be supplied in the following preferred file formats: PDF (*.pdf), Power Point (*.ppt), Photoshop (*.psd) files in grayscales or in RGB color mode.

Photographs (scans, immunofluorescences, EM, and histology images) should be submitted as: 1) JGP (*.jpg) or TIFF (*.tif) with a resolution of at least 300 pixels per inch, or 2) Illustrator compatible EPS files with RGB color management (*.eps), 3) Photoshop (*.psd) or PDF (*.pdf) files (grayscales or RGB) at the appropriate resolution which is:

  • * 300 dpi for color figures
  • * 600 dpi for black and white figures
  • * 1200 dpi for line-art figures

For all photomicrographs, where possible, a scale should appear on the photograph. Photographs of identifiable patients should be accompanied by written permission to publish from patient(s).

Furthermore, panel lettering should be in Arial bold 14 pt, capitalized and no full stop (A, B) while lettering in figures (axes, conditions), should be in Arial 8 pt, lower case type with the first letter capitalized and no full stop. No type should be smaller than 6 pt. (For more detailed information, please refer to the Figure and Table Guidelines).

If after acceptance the quality of the figures does not match the standards of the Journal, the authors will be asked to resubmit the figures at the required quality.
Tables. Tables should be provided as Word files (*.doc). No TIFF and JPG files are acceptable for table submission. When submitting tables in Microsoft Word table function, no tab, space or colors should be used. Tables should contain a maximum of 10 columns. Tables submitted in landscape orientation will not be accepted. Tables should include a title, table legend, and if necessary footnotes. Include tables in the submitted manuscript as a separate section.
Figure Legends. Figure legends should be listed one after the other, as part of the text document, separate from the figure files. Please do not write a legend below each figure. Each figure legend should have a brief overarching title that describes the entire figure without citing specific panels, followed by a description of each panel, and the symbols used. Enough information should be provided in the figure legend text to permit interpretation of figures without reference to the text; but should not contain any details of methods, or exceed 100 words.
The abbreviated word for figure “Fig.” should be typed and bolded, followed by the figure number and a period (i.e.., “Fig. 1.”). Every figure legend should have a Title written in bold. If a figure contains multiple sections (i.e. A, B, C, D) the letter for these subsections should be in capital letters. Within the figure legend text the capital letters should be surrounded by parenthesis [i.e. (A)(B)(C)(D)]. Figures should be numbered according to the order of citation.

Supplementary material.
Supplementary material can be uploaded during the submission process.
The Supplementary material should have a manuscript title, list of authors, a table of contents, followed by the list of investigators (if there is one), text (such as methods), figures, tables, and then references. Supplementary material must be prepared as a single Word file with pages numbered (including references, tables and figure legends) using Times New Roman or Arial 12 pt double-spaced). Sections have to be 12 pt bold, Subsections have to be 12 pt, italics. For mathematical symbols, Greek letters, and other special characters, use normal text, NOT symbol. The references must be in accordance with the Journal of Hepatology reference style (see References).
Figures have to be included with legends below each figure. Figure legends consist of a title (bold) and separate descriptions for reach panel, labelled by capital letters in parenthesis. Tables have to be included with Table titles (bold) on top of the Table and footnotes below. Very large Tables (e.g., microarray data) should be submitted as Excel file.
The Supplementary material will not be edited for style.
Supplemental movies may be submitted through Elsevier Editorial System as (*.mov), (*.avi), (*.mpeg), or (*.gif) files. By choosing the submission item labeled “Supplementary data,” the PDF builder will imbed links within the PDF where editors and reviewers will be able to download the files. This also works for Excel files that do not display properly once converted to a PDF. Please note that the size limit for these items is 10 MB per file.
Large data sets (too large to be included within the manuscript) must be submitted online. Each file should be prepared as PDF, Excel, or text. The size of the file should not exceed 10MB.
Upon acceptance, if supplementary material does not comply with the guidelines authors will be requested to change the formatting.

Editorial Policy

Responsible reporting of research studies, which includes a complete, transparent, accurate and timely account of what was done and what was found during a research study, is an integral part of good research and publication practice and not an optional extra. The Journal of Gerontology and Geriatrics supports initiatives aimed at improving the reporting of health research. We ask authors to use the following guidelines when drafting their manuscripts:
Animal trials. Manuscripts reporting experiments using animals must include a statement giving assurance that all animals received human care and that study protocols comply with the institution’s guidelines. Statistical methods used should be outlined.
Human trials. Manuscripts reporting data from research conducted on humans must include a statement of assurance in the methods section of the manuscript reading that: (1) informed consent was obtained from each patient included in the study and (2) the study protocol conforms to the ethical guidelines of the 1975 Declaration of Helsinki as reflected in a priori approval by the institution’s human research committee.
Randomised controlled trials. Any paper that is a randomized control trial should adhere to the guidelines that can be found at the following web-site: The checklist should be printed out and faxed to the Editorial office at the time of submission. The trial registration number must be included on the title page of the manuscript reporting a registered clinical trial. Failure to do so will prevent entry to the peer review process.

Registration of clinical trials. The Journal of Gerontology and Geriatrics endorses the policy of the WHO and the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) on the registration of clinical trials. Any trial that starts recruiting on or after July 1, 2005 should be registered in a publicly owned, publicly accessible registry and should satisfy a minimal standard dataset. Trials that started recruiting before that date will be considered for publication if registered before September 13, 2005. More detailed information regarding the definition of clinical trial, the minimal registration data set, and the requirements for an acceptable trial registry can be found in New Engl J Med 2004, 351:1250-1251 and New Engl J Med 2005, 352:2437-2438.
Drugs and chemicals. Drugs and chemicals should be used by generic name. If trademarks are mentioned, the manufacturer’s name and city should be given. All funding sources supporting the work, either public or private, especially those from pharmaceutical companies, must be provided.
Genomic and proteomic data. The Journal of Gerontology and Geriatrics supports the efforts of databases that aggregate published data for the use of the scientific community. Therefore, appropriate data sets (including microarray data, protein or DNA sequences) must be deposited in an approved database, and an accession number or a specific access address must be included in the published paper. We encourage compliance with MIBBI guidelines (Minimum Information for Biological and Biomedical Investigations []).

Details include but are not limited to:
DNA and protein sequences. Approved databases are GenBank or other members of the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration (EMBL or DDBJ) and SWISS-PROT.

Microarray data. Data should be presented in MIAME-compliant standard format ( Approved databases are Gene Expression Omnibus ( and ArrayExpress (
Other large datasets produced using genomics technologies (including but not limited to ChIP on Chip, Genotyping, aCGH and Tilling Arrays) must be deposited in an appropriate public repository. Please include the repository URL and the data accession number in the body of the manuscript upon submission. Data must be publicly accessible upon acceptance and publication of the manuscript as a Paper in Press. No data are to be withdrawn following publication

Methodological and statistical instructions for authors submitting manuscripts to the Journal of Gerontology and Geriatrics

The manuscripts should include a complete and detailed description of what was done. This includes a description of the design, measurement and collection of data, the study objective and major hypotheses, type and source of subjects, inclusion and exclusion criteria and measures of outcome, number of subjects studied and why this number was chosen. Any deviation from the study protocol should be stated. The baseline characteristics of any compared groups should be described in detail and -if necessary -adjusted for in the analysis of the outcome. For randomized clinical trials the following should also be clearly documented: treatments, sample size estimation, method of random allocation and measures taken for maintaining its concealment including blinding, numbers treated, followed-up, being withdrawn, dropping out, and having side effects (numbers and type). The statistical methods used should be relevant and clearly stated. Special or complex statistical methods should be explained and referenced. Complex analyses should be performed with the assistance of a qualified statistician. Unqualified use of such analyses is strongly discouraged. The underlying assumptions of the statistical methods used should be tested to ensure that the assumptions are fulfilled. For small data sets and if variable distributions are non-normal, distribution free (non-parametric) statistical methods should be used. The actual p values – whether significant or not – should always be presented (not NS). Confidence intervals convey more information than p values and should be presented whenever possible. Continuous variables can always be summarized using the median and range which are therefore preferred. Only in the infrequent case of a Normal distribution are the mean and standard deviation (SD) useful. Complex analyses (including Cox and logistic regression analysis) should be presented in sufficient detail: i.e. variable scoring, regression coefficients, standard errors and any constants. Odds-ratios or relative risks are not sufficient documentation of such analyses. The handling of any missing values in the data should be clearly specified. The number of statistical tests performed should be kept at a minimum to reduce spurious positive results. Explorative (hypothesis generating) analyses without confirmation using independent data are discouraged. Figures showing individual observations, e.g. scatter plots, are encouraged. Histograms may also be useful. Tables should indicate the number of observations on which each result is being based.

Review Articles

Review articles (reviews, ethics reviews and clinical guidelines) on selected clinical and basic topics of interest for the readers of the Journal of Gerontology and Geriatrics will be solicited by the Editors. Review articles are expected to be clear, concise and updated.
Review articles must be accompanied by a title page and a summary.

Review articles are reviewed by the Editors and may be sent to outside expert reviewers before a final decision for publication is made. Revisions may be required.


The JGG welcomes Special Issues on topics that fall within the scope of the journal. Each review included in the Special Issues is handled by the Special Issues editor. Those wishing to guest edit a special issue should prepare a proposal as outlined below, and then send this to the Special Issue editor.

Special Issues of JGG should aim:

  • to synthesize, integrate and analyze current thinking and debates in a focused areas of gerontology and geriatrics;
  • to stimulate linkages between sub-fields of basic and clinical research.

An issue of JGG should be about 45,000-50,000 words long, meaning a maximum of eight reviews, assuming that papers are on average 6,000 words long (including abstract, appendices, and tables).

Original Manuscripts

Original articles (original investigations and short communications) describing clinical and basic investigations in the fields of gerontology and geriatrics. Manuscripts submitted in this category are expected to be concise, well organized, and clearly written.

There are no page or word limits for research reports, but manuscripts over 7000 words should be approved by the Editor-in-Chief before submission.

– The abstract must be no longer than 250 words, organized as follows:

– Background & Aims

– Methods

– Results

– Conclusions

Do not use abbreviations, footnotes or references in the abstract. An electronic word count of the abstract must be included.

– Three to ten key words at the end of the abstract must be provided.

– The manuscript must be arranged as follows:

  • Title page
  • Abstract in theJournal of Gerontology and Geriatrics format
  • Introduction
  • Materials and methods (or Patients and methods)
  • Results
  • Discussion
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
  • Tables
  • Figure legends
  • Figures

Acceptance of original manuscripts will be based upon originality and importance of the investigation. Manuscripts are reviewed by the Editors and by two experts in the field. Authors shall be responsible for the quality of language and style and are strongly advised against submitting a manuscript which is not written in grammatically correct English. Manuscripts are submitted with the understanding that they are original contributions and do not contain data that have been published elsewhere or are under consideration by another journal. Meeting abstracts do not constitute prior publication.