Nephrolithiasis in the elderly
Nephrolithiasis is a disease characterized by the presence of crystal concretions in the urinary tract. It is widely
spread worldwide, both in the Western and non-Western countries. Several studies have pointed out a rising
prevalence and incidence of kidney stone disease in the elderly population in the last several decades.
Data from large cohort studies suggest an association between the increased risk of stones formation and
dietary factors such as low fluid intake, low calcium intake, high sodium intake, high animal protein intake,
and high fructose intake. The kidney stones risk may also be increased by medical conditions such as obesity,
diabetes, primary hyperparathyroidism, and gout. Stones may be asymptomatic or may show symptoms such
as abdominal and flank pain, nausea and vomiting, urinary tract obstruction, and infections.
This review aims to outline specific features of nephrolithiasis in the elderly population, including lifestyle, eating
habits, hormonal modifications and comorbidities that may affect stone formation. We also assessed the
impact of age on diagnostic and therapeutic pathways. Evidence suggest that age per se should not preclude
standard treatment but should be taken in due account during the decision-making process.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
© Società Italiana di Gerontologia e Geriatria (SIGG) , 2018
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