Review
Published: 2018-06-15

Dietary intervention and prevention of cognitive-related outcomes in healthy older adults without cognitive dysfunction

Geriatric Medicine, Memory Unit and Rare Disease Centre, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Bari, Italy
Geriatric Medicine, Memory Unit and Rare Disease Centre, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Bari, Italy
Geriatric Medicine, Memory Unit and Rare Disease Centre, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Bari, Italy
Geriatric Medicine, Memory Unit and Rare Disease Centre, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Bari, Italy
Geriatric Medicine, Memory Unit and Rare Disease Centre, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Bari, Italy
Neurodegenerative Disease Unit, Department of Basic Medicine, Neuroscience, and Sense Organs, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Bari, Italy
Neurodegenerative Disease Unit, Department of Basic Medicine, Neuroscience, and Sense Organs, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Bari, Italy; Geriatric Unit & Laboratory of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Department of Medical Sciences, IRCCS “Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza”, San Giovanni Rotondo, Foggia, Italy
Interdisciplinary Department of Medicine (DIM), Section of Dentistry, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Bari, Italy
Psychiatric Unit, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy
Geriatric Medicine, Memory Unit and Rare Disease Centre, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Bari, Italy
Geriatric Medicine, Memory Unit and Rare Disease Centre, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Bari, Italy
Alzheimer’s disease Dementia Dietary pattern Medical food, Nutraceuticals Healthy diet Mediterranean diet Macronutrients Micronutrients Mild cognitive impairment Prevention

Abstract

In the last decade, the association between diet and cognitive function/dementia has been largely investigated
in observational studies, while there was a lack of evidence from randomized clinical trials (RCTs) on
the prevention of late-life cognitive disorders though dietary intervention in cognitively healthy older adults.
In the present article, we reviewed RCTs published in the last three years (2014-2016) exploring nutritional
intervention efficacy in preventing the onset of late-life cognitive disorders and dementia in cognitively
healthy subjects aged over 60 years using different levels of investigation (i.e., dietary pattern changes/
medical food/nutraceutical supplementation/multidomain approach and dietary macro- and micronutrient
approaches). From the included RCTs, there was moderate evidence that intervention through dietary pattern
changes, medical food/nutraceutical supplementation, and multidomain approach improved specific
cognitive domains or cognitive-related blood biomarkers. Moreover, there was high evidence that protein
supplementation improved specific cognitive domains. For fatty acid supplementation, mainly long-chain
polyunsaturated fatty acids, there was emerging evidence suggesting an impact of this approach in improving
specific cognitive domains, MRI findings, and/or cognitive-related biomarkers also in selected subgroups
of older subjects although some results were conflicting. Moreover, there was convincing evidence
of an impact of non-flavonoid polyphenol and flavonoid supplementations in improving specific cognitive
domains and/or MRI findings. Finally, there was only low evidence suggesting efficacy of intervention with
homocysteine-related vitamins in improving cognitive functions, dementia incidence, or cognitive-related
biomarkers in cognitively healthy older subjects.

Affiliations

P. Agosti

Geriatric Medicine, Memory Unit and Rare Disease Centre, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Bari, Italy

C. Custodero

Geriatric Medicine, Memory Unit and Rare Disease Centre, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Bari, Italy

A. Schilardi

Geriatric Medicine, Memory Unit and Rare Disease Centre, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Bari, Italy

A. D'Introno

Geriatric Medicine, Memory Unit and Rare Disease Centre, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Bari, Italy

V. Valiani

Geriatric Medicine, Memory Unit and Rare Disease Centre, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Bari, Italy

M. Lozupone

Neurodegenerative Disease Unit, Department of Basic Medicine, Neuroscience, and Sense Organs, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Bari, Italy

F. Panza

Neurodegenerative Disease Unit, Department of Basic Medicine, Neuroscience, and Sense Organs, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Bari, Italy; Geriatric Unit & Laboratory of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Department of Medical Sciences, IRCCS “Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza”, San Giovanni Rotondo, Foggia, Italy

V. Dibello

Interdisciplinary Department of Medicine (DIM), Section of Dentistry, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Bari, Italy

C. Piccininni

Psychiatric Unit, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy

V. Solfrizzi

Geriatric Medicine, Memory Unit and Rare Disease Centre, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Bari, Italy

C. Sabbà

Geriatric Medicine, Memory Unit and Rare Disease Centre, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Bari, Italy

Copyright

© Società Italiana di Gerontologia e Geriatria (SIGG) , 2018

How to Cite

[1]
Agosti, P., Custodero, C., Schilardi, A., D’Introno, A., Valiani, V., Lozupone, M., Panza, F., Dibello, V., Piccininni, C., Solfrizzi, V. and Sabbà, C. 2018. Dietary intervention and prevention of cognitive-related outcomes in healthy older adults without cognitive dysfunction. JOURNAL OF GERONTOLOGY AND GERIATRICS. 66, 02 Special (Jun. 2018), 87-100.
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