Given the impact of nutrition on neuroprotection largely investigated in observational studies, in the present article, we reviewed evidence from randomized clinical trials (RCTs) published in the last three years (2014-2016) exploring nutritional intervention efficacy in slowing cognitive impairment progression and achieving cognitive-related outcomes in patients aged 60 years and older with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), preclinical Alzheimer’s disease (AD), prodromal AD, AD, unspecified dementia, and vascular dementia using different levels of investigation (i.e., medical food/nutraceutical supplementation/multidomain approach and dietary food/macro- and micronutrient approaches). From the reviewed RCTs, there was emerging evidence that nutritional intervention through medical food/nutraceutical supplementation (Fortasyn Connect® and another similar nutraceutical formulation) and multidomain approach improved magnetic resonance imaging findings and other cognitive-related biomarkers, but without clear effect on cognition in mild AD and MCI. Moreover, there was some evidence of a positive effect of antioxidant-rich foods (nuts) in improving specific cognitive domains and cognitive-related outcomes in MCI and mild-to-moderate dementia, but only in small samples. There was also convincing evidence for fatty acid supplementation, mainly n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), in improving specific cognitive domains and/or cognitive-related biomarkers in MCI and AD. Furthermore, antioxidant vitamin and trace element supplementations improved only cognitive-related outcomes and biomarkers, without effect on cognitive function in AD and MCI patients. Finally, high-dose B vitamin supplementation in AD and MCI patients improved cognitive outcomes but only in the subjects with a high baseline plasma n-3 PUFA, while folic acid supplementation had positive impact on specific cognitive domains.